lundi 26 juin 2017

Classic Riddle


Q What has been around for thousands of years, but is never more than a month old?
A The Moon.

Look how it is presented now:



Thousands of years would even on the erroneous evolutionary view not be actually wrong, just inadequate.

BUT by changing the riddle, they are making themselves look smarter with those who think evolution is right and because this is obvious, they are also making evolutionary thinking look smart./HGL

lundi 19 juin 2017

Continuing Interim III to Joseph in Egypt


Tas Walker and Myself on C14 : Glacial Maximum and End · Interim III, Flood to Abraham with Syncellus · Continuing Interim III to Joseph in Egypt

How do we do that?

Well, for one thing, we know the Joseph in Egypt episode is misdated to whenever Djoser is misdated to, since Joseph according to hunger stele was in all probability Imhotep.

Then we look for a clue when Joseph would have been there according to Syncellus.

2189 BC Birth of Abraham
0075 (take away)
2114 BC Promise to Abraham
0430 (take away)
1684 BC Exodus after promise = 1685 BC, Exodus acc to Syncellus
0215 (add back)
1899 BC Jacob to Egypt c. about time when Pharao Djoser is going to die.

Interim III ended on:

XXIX 2208 BC
86.572 pmc 3400 BC


2208
1899
0307 : 8 = 38.375 (actually 309, sorry!)

XXIX 2208  XXX 2170  XXXI 2131
XXXII 2093  XXXIII 2055  XXXIV 2016
XXXV 1978  XXXVI 1939  XXXVII 1901


1900 BC, misdated as 2800 crude C-14 year (Djoser redated on historical grounds to 2600 BC).

This is 900 extra years.

1192
0900
0292 : 8 = 36.5 extra years

XXIX 1192  XXX 1155.5  XXXI 1119
XXXII 1082.5  XXXIII 1046  XXXIV 1009.5
XXXV 973  XXXVI 936.5  XXXVII 900


This means what in percent modern carbon (pmc)?

XXIX 86.572 pmc  XXX 86.955 pmc  XXXI 87.34 pmc
XXXII 87.726 pmc  XXXIII 88.115 pmc  XXXIV 88.504 pmc
XXXV 88.896 pmc  XXXVI 89.289 pmc  XXXVII 89.685 pmc


And which are the "apparent years"?

XXIX 3400  XXX 3325  XXXI 3250
XXXII 3175  XXXIII 3101  XXXIV 3025
XXXV 2951  XXXVI 2875  XXXVII 2801


Let's make a table, inserting our previous knowledge too:

I 3358 BC
1.514 pmc 38 000 BC

Arphaxad *
3356 BC

II 3317 BC
1.962 pmc 35 815 BC

III 3276 BC
2.543 pmc 33 631 BC

IV 3235 BC
3.295 pmc 31 446 BC

Cainan *
3223 BC

V 3194 BC
4.271 pmc 29 262 BC

VI 3153 BC
5.535 pmc 27 077 BC

VII 3112 BC
7.173 pmc 24 892 BC

Shelah *
3093 BC

VIII 3070 BC
9.297 pmc 22 708 BC

IX 3029 BC
12.049 pmc 20 523 BC

Noah +
3008 BC

X 2988 BC
15.616 pmc 18 338 BC

Eber *
2963 BC

XI 2947 BC
20.239 pmc 16 154 BC

XII 2906 BC
26.23 pmc 13 969 BC

XIII 2865 BC
33.994 pmc 11 785 BC

Shem +
2858 BC

Peleg *
2829 BC

XIV 2824 BC
44.057 pmc 9600 BC

Arphaxad +
2791 BC

XV 2780 BC
49.459 pmc 8600 BC

Cainan +
2763 BC

XVI 2739 BC
51.476 pmc 8229 BC

Reu *
2699 BC

XVII 2698 BC
53.577 pmc 7857 BC

XVIII 2657 BC
55.763 pmc 7486 BC

Shelah +
2633 BC

XIX 2617 BC
58.038 pmc 7114 BC

XX 2576 BC
60.405 pmc 6743 BC

Serug *
2567 BC

XXI 2535 BC
62.87 pmc 6371 BC

XXII 2494 BC
65.435 pmc 6000 BC

Peleg +
2490 BC

Eber +
2459 BC

XXIII 2453 BC
68.105 pmc 5629 BC

Nahor *
2437 BC

XXIV 2412 BC
70.883 pmc 5257 BC

XXV 2371 BC
73.775 pmc 4886 BC

Reu +
2360 BC

Terah *
2358 BC

XXVI 2331 BC
76.785 pmc 4514 BC

XXVII 2290 BC
79.918 pmc 4143 BC

Abraham *
2288 BC

XXVIII 2249 BC
83.178 pmc 3771 BC

Serug +
2237 BC

Nahor +
2229 BC

XXIX 2208 BC
86.572 pmc 3400 BC

Isaac *
2188 BC

XXX 2170 BC
86.955 pmc : 3325 BC

Terah +
2153 BC

XXXI 2131 BC
87.34 pmc : 3250 BC

Jacob and Esau *
2128 BC

Abraham +
2113 BC

XXXII 2093 BC
87.726 pmc : 3175 BC

XXXIII 2055 BC
88.115 pmc : 3101 BC

XXXIV 2016 BC
88.504 pmc : 3025 BC

Isaac +
2008 BC

Jacob +
1981 BC - ERROR WHERE?

XXXV 1978 BC
88.896 pmc : 2951 BC

XXXVI 1939 BC
89.289 pmc : 2875

XXXVII 1901 BC
89.685 pmc : 2801

Jacob +
1881 BC


I seem to have come to an impass with the chronology, it seems Jacob dies way too early in relation to his arrival in Egypt.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St. Juliana Falconieri
Sister of the Servite Founder
19.VI.2017

PS, note very well that if this is an error in Syncellus and not in my understanding of him, there is no such paradox in St Jerome:

2015 Abraham born (acc. to Christmas chronology)
1915 Isaac born (when his father was 100)
1855 Jacob born (when his father was 60)
1725 Jacob to Egypt (at 130 years of age)
0215
1510 Exodus (acc. to Christmas chronology)

All years BC./HGL

PPS, Error fixed, simply subtraction error in year of when Jacob died./HGL

dimanche 18 juin 2017

News on C14 Front


  • When it comes to carbon dates of millions of years old pretendedly things to 40,000 or sometimes even 20,000 years (depending on the presumption original carbon content was 100 pmc or so), I have heard a new argument from Evolutionists : carbon 14 could have formed due to background radiation in the object itself.

    When the object is coal, supposed to be 20,000 years old, I would think it would not have had any nitrogen left and therefore not be able to produce carbon 14 by background radiation. See here:

    http://creation.com/dating-in-conflict

    In the same rock, right alongside the fossil mussels, are fragments of coalified wood. ... So I arranged for this coalified wood to be radiocarbon ‘dated’ by the Physikalisches Institute of the University of Bern, Switzerland.2 I assumed that such a prestigious laboratory would take all necessary precautions to eliminate contamination, and allow for all other sources of error.3 The result: 36,440 years BP ± 330 years.


    Also, this would mean that the explanation nwould have to go for things as recent as dated by carbon 14 to 36,440 years BP, not just objects older than 40,000.

  • Other item: I have extensively here used a fact from Osgood. Abraham must have been alive when Chalcolithic En Geddi was inhabited. I credited his article for the fact, but I had read it so hastily I first now had time to credit him for his detective work. I did it day before yesterday, and here is an article which already has 60 views:

    Assorted retorts from yahoo boards and elsewhere : ... Pyramids, Flood, Babel, LXX, Dead Sea Scrolls
    http://assortedretorts.blogspot.com/2017/06/pyramids-flood-babel-lxx-dead-sea.html


    Citing which:

    The one place where I can't credit you [= Nathan Hoffman] with excellent detective work is accepting Saqqara pyramids as centuries before 2000 BC.

    Abraham lived around that time, and we should probably group him with Narmer in time. That is, Narmer, carbon dated raw date to 3400 BC or so, must have lived more like 2000 BC.

    Abraham coincides with sth else which requires carbon date 3400 BC, namely chalcolithic of En-Geddi. I failed to properly credit Dr A.J.M. Osgood for his detective work, but it was because I trusted him so much I didn't read all of the article carefully. I didn't even look up whether En-Geddi was mentioned in Genesis 14. Its synonym is:

    // As is often the case, the positive clue comes from the most insignificant portion of this passage. In Genesis 14:7 we are told that the kings of Mesapotamia attacked ‘the Amorites who dwelt in Hazezon-tamar’. Now 2 Chronicles 20:2 tells us that Hazezon-tamar is En-gedi, the oasis mentioned in Scripture a number of times on the western shore of the Dead Sea. //


    The Times of Abraham
    By Dr A.J.M. Osgood
    http://creation.com/the-times-of-abraham


    Great detective work, Osgood, even if you missed this has an implication for carbon levels - or didn't like the implication it had! In c. 2000 BC, the carbon level was so low that things from back then, if organic then, carbon date to c. 1400 years older than they are, i e to 3400 BC.

    A Masoretic reading making Abraham more recent would of course add even more extra years to make same apparent date. This means that Saqqara pyramids are too young to disprove the Masoretic text - but nice try!

mercredi 14 juin 2017

Variation of carbon level during Flood?


1.218 pmc now per 36440*
0.792 pmc now per 40000**

/54.788 % per 4974 years since Flood.

0.01218/0.54788 = 0.0222311455063153
0.00792/0.54788 = 0.0144557202307075

2.22311455063153 pmc - 1.44557202307075 pmc - a reasonable variation of carbon level? Perhaps so./HGL

Using for pmc and percent in relation to years : https://www.math.upenn.edu/~deturck/m170/c14/carbdate.html

* See http://creation.com/dating-in-conflict

** See my theory of Neanderthal extinction = Flood.

jeudi 8 juin 2017

Here goes my Howlibird theory ...


Joel kontinen : Death of a Darwinian Icon: T. Rex Did Not Have Feathers, Fossil Evidence Suggests
http://joelkontinen.blogspot.com/2017/06/death-of-darwinian-icon-t-rex-did-not.html


Recently, Dr Phil Bell (University of New England, Australia) and colleagues published a paper in the journal Biology Letters, examining skin impressions from a famous T. rex skeleton known as Wyrex.

They found no evidence for feathers.

In contrast, they found “scaly reptilian-like skin.”


Fine article, except certain people like complaining about the wikipedia instead of doing sth.

Some museums and textbooks (as well as Wikipedia, of course) have put feathers on T. rex although there is no fossil evidence that these huge reptiles ever sported them.


I look up wikipedia and see this:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrannosaurus#Skin_and_feathers

While there is no direct evidence for Tyrannosaurus rex having had feathers, many scientists now consider it likely that T. rex had feathers on at least parts of its body,[33] due to their presence in related species. Mark Norell of the American Museum of Natural History summarized the balance of evidence by stating that: "we have as much evidence that T. rex was feathered, at least during some stage of its life, as we do that australopithecines like Lucy had hair."[34]

The first evidence for feathers in tyrannosauroids came from the small species Dilong paradoxus, found in the Yixian Formation of China, and reported in 2004. As with many other theropods discovered in the Yixian, the fossil skeleton was preserved with a coat of filamentous structures which are commonly recognized as the precursors of feathers.[35] Because all known skin impressions from larger tyrannosauroids known at the time showed evidence of scales, the researchers who studied Dilong speculated that feathers may correlate negatively with body size—that juveniles may have been feathered, then shed the feathers and expressed only scales as the animal became larger and no longer needed insulation to stay warm.[35] However, subsequent discoveries showed that even some large tyrannosauroids had feathers covering much of their bodies, casting doubt on the hypothesis that they were a size-related feature.[36]

While skin impressions from a Tyrannosaurus rex specimen nicknamed "Wyrex" (BHI 6230) discovered in Montana in 2002,[37] as well as some other giant tyrannosauroid specimens, show at least small patches of mosaic scales,[38] others, such as Yutyrannus huali (which was up to 9 meters (30 ft) long and weighed about 1,400 kilograms (3,100 lb)), preserve feathers on various sections of the body, strongly suggesting that its whole body was covered in feathers.[36] It is possible that the extent and nature of feather covering in tyrannosauroids may have changed over time in response to body size, a warmer climate, or other factors.[36]

Research has suggested that large theropods like Tyrannosaurus had teeth covered in lips like modern day lizards, rather than having bare teeth like crocodiles. This is based on the presence of enamel, which may need to remain hydrated, an issue not faced by aquatic species like crocodilians or toothless species like birds, which have lipless mouths and toothless beaks. In modern terrestrial animals with bare teeth, the teeth typically lack some or all of the standard amount of tooth enamel. Because Tyrannosaurus and other toothed theropods had enamel-covered teeth, they would have required some sort of lip-like covering to seal the mouth when closed.[39][40] However, the discovery that Daspletosaurus horneri, a related genus, seemingly did not possess lips and instead seems to have possessed large scales similar to those of crocodiles on its face. Based on comparisons of bone texture of D. horneri with crocodilians, this suggests that Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids may not have had lips at all and instead had large, flat scales that left no room for lips. The skull of Daspletosaurus horneri also suggests that tyrannosaurids including Tyrannosaurus had integumentary sensory organs similar to crocodilians likely used in touch, temperature readings, prey detection and precise control of jaw movements.[41]


Two hypotheses apart from that of the evolutionists:

  • the dinos with feathers seem to come from China, a country with still a socialist system apart from certain aspects of market economy, and could be frauds;
  • the Dilong paradoxus as well as the Yutyrannus huali, while Chinese, are even so not frauds but could resurrect my Howlibird theory ... they would in that case be another created kind than T Rex and Allosaurus.


Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
Thursday in Pentecost Octave
8.VI.2017

mercredi 7 juin 2017

Shem the Cave Painter? Or Japheth?


It should be known by now that I differ on when Palaeolithic mainly occurred from CMI, them preferring after Babel, me preferring from Flood to soon before Babel.

Today's article on CMI accentuates this:

Cave art—more recent than you might think!

Cave paintings of horses and other animals would have been created after the Babel dispersion recorded in Genesis 11. As small populations of human beings migrated from Babel across the continents, some sheltered/lived in caves and daubed the cave walls with images of horses and other animals they saw. Many of these creatures (including the classic ‘prehistoric’-looking horse) subsequently became extinct. In one way, the work of people like the Stroebels has served to bring this ‘cave painting era’ psychologically closer to the present.17 It also raises the question of whether these creatures and the paintings really date to many tens of thousands of years ago, as is popularly claimed.18


I obviously agree cave art is more recent than evolutionists tend to think.

But I think it ended before Babel.

Here is a wikipedian article on these items:

"Cave painting" on the Wickipeejuh
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_painting


And here are salient dates:

The oldest date given to an animal cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi, an Indonesian island. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old. ... Other examples may date as late as the Early Bronze Age, but the well-known Magdalenian style seen at Lascaux in France (c. 15,000 BCE) and Altamira in Spain died out about 10,000 BCE, coinciding with the advent of the Neolithic period. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of several thousands of years.


Pettakere in Sulawesi, 35,400 years old, 33,400 BC. This is fairly close to the 33,631 BC (carbon dated) which in my table goes with (extended) LXX chronology 3276 BC, about 80 years after the Flood. "Death" of Magdalenian style, 10,000 BC, comes between the 11,785 BC and the 9600 BC (beginning of Göbekli Tepe / Babel, 40 years before dispersion) which in this table come to the years 2865 BC and 2824 BC. Between which years Shem dies and Peleg is born:

III 3276 BC
2.543 pmc 33,631 BC

XIII 2865 BC
33.994 pmc 11,785 BC

Shem +
2858 BC

Peleg *
2829 BC

XIV 2824 BC
44.057 pmc 9600 BC


Interim III, Flood to Abraham with Syncellus
http://creavsevolu.blogspot.com/2017/05/interim-iii-flood-to-abraham-with.html


On the view of CMI, the cave art would be from one short epoch, but spontaneously arising independently, and this despite having very many commonalities. On my view, it could be from one single artist. On second thoughts, perhaps not Shem, after all, but his brother Japheth, who might be presumed to have lived about as long - or his wife.

Unity of style argues that cave art of Magdalenian type at least was by one artist or one school of artists. It was a style like the Gothic or Renaissance or Baroque. It would have taken a man kind very different from ours in mental capacities to extend this style over 20,000 years or even 10,000 years with so little variation. But it would be easy as cake for the people living longer than we after the flood to extend the style something like 432 years, simply because whoever took the initiative to the style took longer to die off than we do now.

If this was before Babel, we get two implications, which have so far neither to the best of my knowledge been overturned, nor confirmed:

  • There was no idolatry.
  • The language was Hebrew (not yet called so, since not yet restricted to Heber's family and descendants).


While they have not been overturned, I say, they are contested, this or that can be supposed to be one or other shaman or even idol of fertility.

Now, the "sorcerer" in the Cave of Trois-Frères must if so have known about the true God:



On wiki:
Wizard or Cuckold God of the Trois-Frères Sanctuary.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_of_the_Trois-Fr%C3%A8res#/media/File:Pintura_Trois_Freres.jpg


Date
2001

Source
http://www.celtiberia.net/verimg.asp?id=534

Author
Clottes, J y Lewis-Williams


It could be Cainan or Nimrod up to some bad things. Or it could mean sth entirely other than sorcery. It is at least not proof the people back then had already turned away from the true God to idols.

The other aspect is that everyone was still speaking Hebrew. A figurative painting as such can neither validate nor invalidate it. The so far thought to be oldest piece of writing being the Dispilio tablet - carbon dated to 5202 ± 123 BC, that is between 2412 BC and 2371 BC on my table - could be non-Hebrew and would not refute my observation, since, unlike cave paintings this is after Babel. Or Tărtăria tablets dated around 5300 BC, that is before 2412 BC - we are speaking with birth of Nahor and death of Reu on this table.

But it would be interesting to follow up what Genevieve von Petzinger will have to say on the 32 late palaeolithic signs:

Her video : Why are these 32 symbols found in caves all over Europe | Genevieve von Petzinger
TED
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJnEQCMA5Sg


My response : Assorted retorts from yahoo boards and elsewhere : ... on Genevieve von Petzinger's 32 late palaeolithic signs
http://assortedretorts.blogspot.com/2017/03/on-genevieve-von-petzingers-32-late.html


If I am right this could be alphabetic signs, or some of them, it would be very interesting if it turned out to be compatible with Hebrew alphabet and some stone had for instance Yod Gimel Resh (corresponding to, not same shapes!) for Japheth Gomer Riphath, somewhere, and somewhere else some other genealogy in nuce. I have tried to reach her about this, but so far no response. Not even as much as a "not interested", I can't tell if that is the case or if it was not forwarded to her.

And if I am wrong, if nothing can be reconstructed as Hebrew language genealogies or other phrases, perhaps a simple Shin for shalom (once one looks), that would of course boost CMI and their position palaeolithic cave arts were post Babel.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
Ember Wednesday of Pentecost
7.VI.2017

CMI's article for today is:

Resurrecting a ‘prehistoric’ horse
by Philip Bell
http://creation.com/resurrecting-a-prehistoric-horse

mercredi 31 mai 2017

What is Flammarion's Wood Cut Doing Illustrating a CMI Article on Galileo?


Back in October 1997, Russell Grigg published an article on Galileo.

It finishes with, just before the notes, a fact box about the Ptolemaic system.

One could of course ask what such a fact box is doing there, since the Church was in 1616 and 1633 very much not defending the integral Ptolemaic system, but only two of its data in common with other Geocentric and Geostatic systems: 1) Sun moves around Earth daily and 2) moves its daily movement around Earth from South to North and back across Equator yearly.

In fact, the Church was supporting astronomers like Riccioli, who thought that Almagest needed an update badly, because Ptolemy was wrong on so many things, hence the title of Riccioli's work Almagestum Novum. Discoveries by Tycho Brahe and Kepler were taken into account, while two positions (not discoveries) by Kepler were rejected:

  • that Earth moves in a yearly orbit around the Sun and also in a daily rotation around itself*;
  • that the mechanism of movements of celestial bodies is mechanistic.**


But there is another twist to this. Using Flammarion's woodcut when talking of Ptolemaic system is a somewhat dishonest bait and switch tactic. And here is alas what I saw on the article:



Can we get a little close up of the illustration to the right? Here:

A traveller puts his head under the edge of the firmament in the original (1888) printing of the Flammarion engraving.
Anonymous - Camille Flammarion, L'Atmosphère: Météorologie Populaire (Paris, 1888), pp. 163

The Flammarion engraving is a wood engraving by an unknown artist that first appeared in Camille Flammarion's L'atmosphère: météorologie populaire (1888). The image depicts a man crawling under the edge of the sky, depicted as if it were a solid hemisphere, to look at the mysterious Empyrean beyond. The caption underneath the engraving (not shown here) translates to "A medieval missionary tells that he has found the point where heaven and Earth meet..."

Image and captions from:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flammarion_engraving#/media/File:Flammarion.jpg


OK, if we go to the mere text in the fact box by Russell Grigg, there is no indication whatsoever that Ptolemaic world view involves a place where heaven and earth meet, like in the wood cut or engraving. Nor any other indication that a Ptolemy reader, believing what he read, would be involved in Flat Earth. Precisely as in the fact text by Flammarion.

In the illustration, however, there is a very clear suggestion that, as there was in Medieval times (it looks like a Medieval wood cut, except it is not clumsy enough***!) a kind of imagination around of a place where heaven and earth met, there was also a kind of imagination that Earth was flat, rather than a globe surrounded by Heaven on all sides. While no actual word, only the fact it is given as illustration of other words, suggests this was a part of Ptolemaic world view, nothing stops the reader (especially the lazy reader, taking things in as a unity) from making the association and actually believing this.

Is Russell Grigg unaware that the original illustration by Flammarion was also given a caption much more directly misleading, one saying basically that the Medievals were willing to believe a Catholic missionary on such detail? If not, and if he is an honest person, rather than as some Ian Paisley creatures willing to twist facts to get at the Catholic Church, why did he include the illustration? Was someone else doing so on the CMI staff?

And if he was not aware of this ulterior dishonesty, even so, why include the wood cut at all, since obviously it was not about the Ptolemaic world view at all?

Was he sentimental about old school books, or did he lose the sense of relevance? I mean, even if he is now one of the older guys on CMI, or even retired, back then he was just 70 years, and people who live to ninety don't tend to be Alzheimer patients, so I can't believe that. However, he could have been a wee bit too faithful to some of the less honest teachers he had met in his childhood or teens or young carreer as a chemist, at university or after.

He is perhaps not the only chemist, who, while learning useful things about chemistry, learned useless things about History of Science.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
Wednesday of
Pentecost Novena
31.V.2017

Notes:

* Riccioli, like the Church, said probably : definitely wrong - but I have not read that passage, I have not read the whole work. ** Riccioli, in absence of definition by the Church but in presence of a preponderance in favour of angelic movers among writers of the Church considered Kepler probably wrong. That particular passage I have read. I quoted it in this article:

New blog on the kid : What Opinion did Riccioli call the Fourth and Most Common One?
http://nov9blogg9.blogspot.com/2014/08/what-opinion-did-riccioli-call-fourth.html


Written in response to Sungenis and DeLano who while fellow Catholics and fellow Geocentrics were more on Kepler's than on Riccioli's side when it comes to angelic movers.

*** The level of technique in wood cuts shown in this one would be that acquired by the time of the Reformers or even later - after Magellan had settled the issue.

Update:

On Facebook:

Hans-Georg Lundahl
Actually, I just detected a place where Russell Grigg was using a fraudulent or fraudulently placed illustration too: [linking here]

Creation Ministries International
Hans-Georg Lundahl: Links outside of creation.com aren't allowed (our rules on our main Facebook page explain why). You can re-post in fresh thread without the link. As per rule #7, comment hidden.

Hans-Georg Lundahl
My article was my argument fleshed out.

Feel free to just forward it to him.

I have given him an opportunity to respond.


[I was then given and used a good method of forwarding.]

PS : It seems that the article was changed in response to this request. It seems also that the article was changed from a magazine October 1997 to one in September 1997.

lundi 29 mai 2017

Interim III, Flood to Abraham with Syncellus


Tas Walker and Myself on C14 : Glacial Maximum and End · Interim III, Flood to Abraham with Syncellus · Continuing Interim III to Joseph in Egypt

We make a little chart according to Peleg synchronised with Babel and Abraham in En-Geddi with Chalcolithic thereof.

Peleg 529 - 868, Abraham 1070 – 1245, in each case, after the Flood.

Longevity Charts as per LXX
http://creavsevolu.blogspot.com/2015/11/longevity-charts-as-per-lxx.html


Babel's City starts getting built : 5 years after Peleg was born, 534 after Flood.

Dispersion of Languages, building of the City ceases : 40 years later, 574 after Flood.

Abraham in En-Geddi, 80 years after Birth; 1150 after Flood.

  • This chart is non-St Jerome, I will be treating this as Syncellus.

    5500 Creation BC
    2242 Flood Anno Mundi
    3358 Flood BC

    3358 BC
    0534 Babel begins
    2824 BC

    3358 BC
    0578 Babel ends
    2780 BC

    3358 BC
    1150 Abraham in En-Geddi
    2208 BC

  • Archaeological identifications of Flood, Babel and Abraham in En-Geddi, with the carbon dates:

    • Displacement of Neanderthals by Cro-Magnon in Europe (40 000 BP).

      40 000 BP =
      38 000 BC carbon
      03 358 BC real
      34 642 extra years

    • Göbekli Tepe (9600 - 8600 BC)

      9600 BC carbon
      2824 BC real
      6776 extra years

      8600 BC carbon
      2780 BC real
      5820 extra years

    • Chalcolithic of En-Geddi (3400 BC)

      3400 BC carbon
      2208 BC real
      1192 extra years


  • In detail

    • Flood to Babel

      3358
      2824
      0534/13=41.0769230769230769

      I 3358 II 3317 III 3276
      IV 3235 V 3194 VI 3153
      VII 3112 VIII 3070 IX 3029
      X 2988 XI 2947 XII 2906
      XIII 2865 XIV 2824


    • Extra years therein:

      34 642
      06 776
      27 866/13=2143.5384615384615385

      I 34 642 II 32498 III 30355
      IV 28211 V 26068 VI 23924
      VII 21781 VIII 19637 IX 17494
      X 15350 XI 13207 XII 11063
      XIII 8920 XIV 6776


    • Babel to Chalcolithic En-Geddi

      2780
      2208
      0572/14=40.8571428571428571

      XV 2780 XVI 2739 XVII 2698
      XVIII 2657 XIX 2617 XX 2576
      XXI 2535 XXII 2494 XXIII 2453
      XXIV 2412 XXV 2371 XXVI 2331
      XXVII 2290 XXVIII 2249 XXIX 2208


    • Extra years therein:

      5820
      1192
      4628/14=330.5714285714285714

      XV 5820 XVI 5489 XVII 5159
      XVIII 4828 XIX 4498 XX 4167
      XXI 3837 XXII 3506 XXIII 3175
      XXIV 2845 XXV 2514 XXVI 2184
      XXVII 1853 XXVIII 1523 XXIX 1192


    • Apparent years:

      I 38 000 BC II 35 815 BC III 33 631 BC
      IV 31 446 BC V 29 262 BC VI 27 077 BC
      VII 24 892 BC VIII 22 708 BC IX 20 523 BC
      X 18 338 BC XI 16 154 BC XII 13 969 BC
      XIII 11 785 BC XIV 9600 BC XV 8600 BC
      XVI 8229 BC XVII 7857 BC XVIII 7486 BC
      XIX 7114 BC XX 6743 BC XXI 6371 BC
      XXII 6000 BC XXIII 5629 BC XXIV 5257 BC
      XXV 4886 BC XXVI 4514 BC XXVII 4143 BC
      XXVIII 3771 BC XXIX 3400 BC


    • Pmc as per atmospheric level

      I 1.514 II 1.962 III 2.543
      IV 3.295 V 4.271 VI 5.535
      VII 7.173 VIII 9.297 IX 12.049
      X 15.616 XI 20.239 XII 26.23
      XIII 33.994 XIV 44.057 XV 49.459
      XVI 51.476 XVII 53.577 XVIII 55.763
      XIX 58.038 XX 60.405 XXI 62.87
      XXII 65.435 XXIII 68.105 XXIV 70.883
      XXV 73.775 XXVI 76.785 XXVII 79.918
      XXVIII 83.178 XXIX 86.572


Let's make a table, inserting the patriarchs from the longevity chart?

I 3358 BC
1.514 pmc 38 000 BC

Arphaxad *
3356 BC

II 3317 BC
1.962 pmc 35 815 BC

III 3276 BC
2.543 pmc 33 631 BC

IV 3235 BC
3.295 pmc 31 446 BC

Cainan *
3223 BC

V 3194 BC
4.271 pmc 29 262 BC

VI 3153 BC
5.535 pmc 27 077 BC

VII 3112 BC
7.173 pmc 24 892 BC

Shelah *
3093 BC

VIII 3070 BC
9.297 pmc 22 708 BC

IX 3029 BC
12.049 pmc 20 523 BC

Noah +
3008 BC

X 2988 BC
15.616 pmc 18 338 BC

Eber *
2963 BC

XI 2947 BC
20.239 pmc 16 154 BC

XII 2906 BC
26.23 pmc 13 969 BC

XIII 2865 BC
33.994 pmc 11 785 BC

Shem +
2858 BC

Peleg *
2829 BC

XIV 2824 BC
44.057 pmc 9600 BC

Arphaxad +
2791 BC

XV 2780 BC
49.459 pmc 8600 BC

Cainan +
2763 BC

XVI 2739 BC
51.476 pmc 8229 BC

Reu *
2699 BC

XVII 2698 BC
53.577 pmc 7857 BC

XVIII 2657 BC
55.763 pmc 7486 BC

Shelah +
2633 BC

XIX 2617 BC
58.038 pmc 7114 BC

XX 2576 BC
60.405 pmc 6743 BC

Serug *
2567 BC

XXI 2535 BC
62.87 pmc 6371 BC

XXII 2494 BC
65.435 pmc 6000 BC

Peleg +
2490 BC

Eber +
2459 BC

XXIII 2453 BC
68.105 pmc 5629 BC

Nahor *
2437 BC

XXIV 2412 BC
70.883 pmc 5257 BC

XXV 2371 BC
73.775 pmc 4886 BC

Reu +
2360 BC

Terah *
2358 BC

XXVI 2331 BC
76.785 pmc 4514 BC

XXVII 2290 BC
79.918 pmc 4143 BC

Abraham *
2288 BC

XXVIII 2249 BC
83.178 pmc 3771 BC

Serug +
2237 BC

Nahor +
2229 BC

XXIX 2208 BC
86.572 pmc 3400 BC

Terah +
2153 BC

Abraham +
2113 BC


Note that the oldest preserved writings are from archaeologically speaking 3500 - 2400 BC. But this means by the surplus of carbon dated years, that the very oldest, the proto-hieroglyphic and proto-literate in Sumerian, fall around point XXIX*, while the real starts** are closer to the archeological equivalents of the time of Joseph in Egypt, supposing his Pharao was Djoser.

This means of course that arguments like "Egypt and Babylon didn't get wet in the Flood" or "Sumerian and Akkadian were found before supposed divergence from original language at Babel" are very moot arguments, to say the very least.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
Monday in Pentecost Novena
29.V.2017

Notes:

* "proto-hieroglyphic" inscriptions from about 3300 BC (Naqada III; see Abydos, Egypt, Narmer Palette), "proto-literate" period from about 3500 BC (see Kish tablet); administrative records at Uruk and Ur from c. 2900 BC., according to:

List of languages by first written accounts
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_languages_by_first_written_accounts


** According to same source:

c. 2690 BC Egyptian Egyptian hieroglyphs in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen (2nd Dynasty), Umm el-Qa'ab,
26th century BC Sumerian Instructions of Shuruppak, the Kesh temple hymn and other cuneiform texts from Shuruppak and Abu Salabikh (Fara period), Some proper names attested in Sumerian texts at Tell Harmal from about 2800 BC. Fragments of the Legend of Etana at Tell Harmal c. 2600 BC.
c. 2400 BC Akkadian A few dozen pre-Sargonic texts from Mari and other sites in northern Babylonia.
c. 2400 BC Eblaite Ebla tablets

samedi 27 mai 2017

Setterfield


Is ICR Making a Case for Geocentrism? · Setterfield

I think that Setterfield is doing a mistake, much like Habermehl, in taking all of the timeline of Uniformitarian Prehistory as a timeline to telescope onto the Biblical one.

While Carbon 14 is definitely telescopable, I think K-Ar (Potassium 40 - Argon 40) is more depending in how long lava was exposed to fresh air between flowing and solidifying, than on how far back it happened, since the factor I mention can be relevant for "excess carbon".

This means K-Ar timeline should not telescope to a prolongation behind the Carbon 14 one, but simply collapse to a non-timeline, and same with Geological time as Biostratigraphy.

Setterfield does not think so, if you want to take a look at his results, here they are:

CREATION AND CATASTROPHE CHRONOLOGY
© Barry Setterfield, September 1999
http://www.setterfield.org/ccchron/barrychron.html


Short link: http://ppt.li/setterfield

Time, Life and Man
http://www.setterfield.org/timeline.htm


Short link: http://ppt.li/setterf2

ANCIENT CHRONOLOGY IN SCRIPTURE
© Barry Setterfield, September 1999
http://www.setterfield.org/scriptchron.htm#times


Short link: http://ppt.li/3s5

His take is that excess dating years come from a decreased speed of light, meaning that all radioactive processes were much quicker before and that distant starlight problem is no problem.

My takes are, with same speed of light:

  • Geological biostrata : diverse biotopes at Flood.
  • Geocentrism takes care of Distant Starlight (see previous)
  • K-Ar : excess argon.
  • U-Pb / Th-Pb : excess lead.
  • Other radiometric : I don't know.
  • Except :
  • Carbon 14 : rising carbon level.
  • Possibly thermoluminiscence : calibrated by C14 erroneous due to rising carbon level.


The ones I specialise in are in bold, the non-astronomical ones in several posts on this blog and the astronomical one on several posts on main blogs (successive such), occasionally here too.

So, for Babel, this means I am placing Babel at Göbekli Tepe, Setterfield at Permian extinction event.

For my part, I think Permian fossils are from Flood, from certain biotopes. As readers of the blog will know, if long time such.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
First Saturday in Pentecost Novena
27.V.2017

PS : also like Habermehl, he is very correct in using LXX, not Masoretic./HGL

vendredi 26 mai 2017

Is ICR Making a Case for Geocentrism?


Is ICR Making a Case for Geocentrism? · Setterfield

On FB, I just came across this link:

ICR : Starlight and the Age of the Universe
by Richard Niessen
http://www.icr.org/article/starlight-age-universe/


So far the answers I gave in the group have not yet generated a debate, here they are:

From opening of ICR's article, I am citing and answering point by point:

"Distances in space cannot be accurately measured. Obviously we cannot stretch a string into outer space or measure these distances with a yardstick, and so distances are calculated, rather than measured. This is accomplished by a technique known as triangulation, or parallax."

Technically, triangulation is the mathematical technique, parallax or stellar parallax the name given by Heliocentrics to the 1838 sighted and measured Bessel phenomenon according to its place in their reckoning as fulfilling a prediction of Heliocentric paradigm.

"Short distances of a few hundred thousand miles can be measured by triangulating the simultaneous observations of observatories on opposite sides of the earth, but as the ratio of the unknown to the known distance increases, the baseline angles become greater and greater, so that beyond an altitude-to-baseline ratio of 28.5 to 1, the angle becomes greater than 89º and must be further divided into minutes and seconds of arc. The limitations of this method are evident even within our own solar system, as the apex angle to our sun would be only 10 seconds of arc (1/360 of a degree). The distances to even the nearest stars are so great that a greater triangulational baseline is needed, and so the earth's orbit around our sun is used,"

But what if Earth does NOT orbit the Sun?

"allowing a baseline of about 186 million miles."

In Geocentrism we don't have that baseline. We have that line in solar distances relative to stars, but not in any way involved in the angles of stars as sighted in the Bessel phenomenon.

"Sightings are taken 6 months apart,"

Which in Geocentric cosmology doesn't change the position of Earth a bit.

"the angles are compared,"

Giving you an angle of probably star's proper movement.

"and the distance is computed with trigonometry."

The supposed distance is commputed with misapplied trigonometry.

In this way I avoid:

  • exotic Geometry of "Light may take a "shortcut" as it travels through space."
  • sheer speculation as to "It is possible that the speed of light was considerably faster in the past."
  • and false theological analysis of "There are Biblical indications that the earth and the universe were created with the appearance of age."


I avoid of course also any chronology contradicting the Biblical one!

So, if this gets noticed and there comes some debate, I will make another post on my "FB blog" about the debate on FB. As to now, I will try to contact Richard Niessen.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
Day after Ascension
26.V.2017

What was the Sunday Letter for the Year of Creation? V


What was the Sunday Letter for the Year of Creation?

Part I · Part II · Part III · Part IV · Part V

So far, the chronology of St Jerome is ailing.

In Patristics, man need to be created not just any Friday, but Friday 25 of March, or as Roman Calendars was not used, at a point of the year astronomically corresponding to it.

I think I have a solution - very tentative, since involving material which at least scrupulous minds would consider heterodox.

It involves, on the one hand a canonicity or quasi-such at least being possible of Book of Henoch and on the other hand also a somewhat rotating Earth - after the Flood. But first of all, the Sunday letter paradigm : it only applies if years are not even multiples of seven days. With a year of 364 days, all years have the same Sunday letter.

This brings us to the book of Henoch. According to it, not just is it so that the Sun moves around its circuit up and down in 364 days, but also it is said that this will always be so.

This cannot be true (and book of Henoch cannot therefore be canonic) if the Sun has slowed down its orbit around the Zodiak (not mentioned in Book of Henoch, as I recall it, but implicit, probably). But it could still be true if since then Earth has started to move slightly eastward, so that 364 pre-Flood days now come out as 365.2425 sth post-Flood days, each day now about 5 pre-Flood minutes shorter than the pre-Flood day, which disrupts our circadian rythm and helped to shorten human lives just after the Flood.

So, if all pre-Flood years up to or including Year of Flood (2242 Anno Mundi to both St Jerome and Syncellus) were same Sunday letter, that would mean we find the Sunday letter of 2242 AM or possibly 2241 AM and we project it back to all previous years.

We are, as we know, now a A after a leap year CB, and we also know the periodicity of Gregorian calendar in short terms not crossing centurial years without leap years is 28, but in somewhat longer terms is 400 years. Now, the Flood was in 2957 BC, which makes us 4973 Anno Diluvii.

2016 cb
2957
4973 cb
4000
0973 cb
0800
0173 cb
0056
0117 cb
0116 d
0115 e
0114 f
0113 g !  113 ag
0112 a  112 b
0111 b  111 c
0110 c  110 d
0109 d ! 109 ed 109 fe
0108 e 108 f 108 g
0084 084 084
0024 e 024 f 024 g
0023 f 023 g 023 a
0022 g 022 a 022 b
0021 ba 021 cb 021 dc
0020 c 020 d 020 e
0019 d 019 e 019 f
0018 e 018f 018 g
0017 gf 017 ag 017 ba
0016 a 016 b 016 c
0015 b 015 c 015 d
0014 c 014 d 014 e
0013 ed 013 fe 013 gf
0012 f 012 g 012 a
0011 g 011 a 011 b
0010 a 010 b 010 c
0009 cb 009 dc 009 ed
0008 d 008 e 008 f
0007 e 007 f 007 g
0006 f 006 g 006 a
0005 ag 005 ba 005 cb
0004 b 004 c 004 d
0003 c 003 d 003 e
0002 d 002 e 002 f
0001 fe 001 gf 001 ag
2242 g or a? or b.
2241 a? or b (or c).


It depends on how many leap years you omit, two because of centurial year and the one accumulated day in 3200 years (see previous, on this one left column), or one, because of only one of them (mid column), or none (right column), considering the year was perhaps a bit longer in terms of days (or days a bit shorter) just after the Flood.

But let us now a bit discuss both the implications, theological and otherwise, of the solution I propose.

Book of Henoch is by St Augustine explicitly considered as possibly really from Henoch, but even so not canonical. Because there could have been some alteration during the very long transmission (if it was inspired by God, perhaps God knew how to preserve it even so?).



In other words, we cannot consider all Church Fathers consider Henoch Apocryphal in the normal sense of the word. One good item in favour of Henoch I came across through Trey Smith (he is known to be a huge fan of that book) is a passage resembling the Stabunt Iusti passage in Wisdom. It goes on to say that the people who are saying "nos stulti" or "hemeis nepioi" are in fact saved due to the prayers of those they had persecuted, which salvation is however after some punishment - an indication of purgatory. I don't think Luther and Calvin would have liked it, but no Catholic from St Gregory the Great to St Robert Bellarmine could object to that aspect!

The relevant passage in astronomical book as part of book of Henoch:

1 The book of the courses of the luminaries of the heaven, the relations of each, according to their classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their names and places of origin, and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel, who was with me, who is their guide, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the world 2 and unto eternity, till the new creation is accomplished which dureth till eternity.


So, if the rest of the passage shows Sun to be making a full circle of its variation in height in 364 das before the Flood, this means it must still be doing so, if Henoch is canonic.

This implies that a year taking in average a bit more than 365 days rather than 364 must be due to some rotation of Earth. And that in turn means that sth would have started to rotate the Earth about the time of the Flood:

  • theologically it must not violate "non commovebitur in aeternum"; but comments by Heliocentrics considering there is a DAILY more then full rotation of Earth have shown a possibly orthodox way to get around that;
  • theologically it must also not violate the conditions of Joshua's long day, but if Earth was budging in a movement which takes 295 pre-Flood days to complete a turn, the relative movement of Sun and Moon (due to Earth's real movement) would have been 1° 13 ' 13" in 24 hours (if I counted right) and this means the Sun and Moon would still be on the spots where Joshua wanted them to be. The difference in angle would not have mattered. The stillness in the orbits was there, and the stillness in appearances was only disrupted so slightly that very fine instruments could have detected it. And:
  • theologically it must also not violate any possibly infallible decision against Galileo in 1616 or 1632 wherein Earth "also moving by a proper movement" is qualified as "at least erroneous". And then:
  • physically such a rotation could be accounted for by an impact of a meteor, like the one in Yucatan, possibly;
  • physically such a rotation, like the presumed daily rotation and yearly circuit, could be accounting for the wobbles.


But if this solution passes, we have what we were looking for a pre-Flood calendar in which all years were, at least for March, Sunday Letter B. And in which therefore also the year of Creation was so. And this with preserved integrity of the chronology of St Jerome, since the years had same length, it was only slightly longer days back then.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
Day after Ascension
and in Pentecost Novena
26.V.2017

mercredi 24 mai 2017

Pause Post


I am catching up with my reading of CMI articles. They are mostly good, some less interesting to me since far from my own concerns, but usually nearly never bad. When they are, I usually write an answer (I am behind two answers).

This article of theirs is from a nearly double countryman of mine, Carolus Linnaeus, ennobled Carl von Linné.

Carl Linnaeus: the scientist who saw evidence for God in everything in nature
by Russell Grigg
http://creation.com/carl-linnaeus


We are both Swedes. I just thought he could have been Scanian, and then he would have been doubly my canoutryman, since I am Scanian (that means Danish subjects up to 1658) on my maternal grandfather's side.

No, while he was a Lundensian student like me (sic, no, he was Uppsalensian! re-sic, no he was both in turns!), he was from Råshult, in Småland. The letter Å is pronounced like English "aw" or when short "o", and is used as alternative for "o" when etymology is an older A. That is a result of a vowel shift not quite identical to the English one.

So, his dad was a Lutheran "Komminister" while Catholic predecessors to him would have been termed Chaplains and usually have been celibate and not thus dads to anyone. He was a "priest" in the Lutheran sense, which is not recognised by the Catholic Church as valid.

Now, the Lutheran clergy (a term less tied to sacramental validity than "priest" so I will use it) usually had studied at university at a time when studies were conducted in Latin. They therefore took the Latin or Latinised version of certain names. The Wittenberg students culpable of our Reformation were in Swedish probably called Persson or Pettersson or Pedersson - which they latinised as Petri. The dad of our most famous botanist was slightly latinising sth as Linnaeus, I think his father had no clerical name. By the way, his mother's mother was Scanian, and even from the part of Scania where my family is originally from, the North-East.

When he was ennobled, Linnaeus was changed to von Linné - spelling of surname frenchified and adding a "von" like German nobility. Of course, his brother remained Linnaeus.

Clerical and nobility's surnames are usually older ones than the bourgeois or military names like Lundahl. The names in -son were back in these days not hereditary surnames but patronymics : his mother was born Anna Christina Samuelsdotter (patronymic still in feminine) Brodersonia (feminine version of her father's clerical name, Samuel Brodersonius, where everything in the Latin name is perfect Swedish except the ending).

Even Linnaeus itself is - except ending - perfect Swedish, since a more correct latinisation of same Swedish word came out as Tiliander. So, the spelling "lind" must have given Linnaeus rather than **Lindaeus because it was pronounced "linn" at the time (there are plenny of American dialects which have a simblar phenomenon).

Where was I going? Ah, yes. Lutherans tended during the "century of Orthodoxy" (1593 - 1718, a century plus some) to brag about being the "via media" between Catholicism and Calvinism. Linnaeus came in a time when Lutherans started to think less of theology and therefore loosen up certain things a bit.

While he is still a perfect example of Natural Theology, as in Creation reflects God, his generation in general (I cannot say quite certainly for himself) is one in which Revealed Theology is no longer requiring Orthodoxy, there is a certain latitude. One indeed in which it was at the end becoming more fashionable to be a Platonist sympathising with Catholicism than a perfectly Lutheran Lutheran. I am going a bit in advance, since Linnaeus died in 1778 and the fashion I speak of is that of P. D.A. Atterbom : sympathetic to Catholicism, but even more clearly a Platonist or Neoplatonist philosopher to whom thoughts mattered more than what was written in either Bible or let alone Konkordieformeln (the formula of Concord, a piece of Lutheran theology as derived after a quarrel between Martin Luther's disciples).

I think that the or one of the best chances to reconvert the Western world is to get back a bit to the language and thought modes of this period and to meet it with the thoughts of the 13th C. Scholastics, like St Albert or St Thomas Aquinas. To them also thoughts mattered - but not more than the Bible and Church Fathers.

Now, this means I consider this period as the time of birth of our own culture - of what is coherent in it. In English, no Englishman, Aussie or Kiwi would be the least ashamed of spelling words like Doctor Johnson did. But for some reason some Swedes are stuck in a few spelling reforms and have an American attitude about spelling : as if the fact that Webster recommended or a President endorsed a new spelling obliged people to change their ways. Such Swedes may tell you I am in Swedish showing signs of dyslexia (sth I can take with humour on a forum, not knowing how to spell is a charge Cohanim made against the Apostles!), or is put on or is a role play showing signs of mental breakdown, or means I imagine I am not really living now or things like that. In fact, my Swedish is probably more readable (at least since less dialectal) than that of Linné, when he wrote Swedish. And it reflects the spelling of my favourite authors, like Atterbom.

Can Carolus Linnaeus have contributed to the mess the world is in now? Well, he did use the word "species" and "genus" which in Latin Bibles is where you translate to "kind" in English in ways smaller than the probable created kinds. So, no problem for a botanist to see speciation occur, you just need a ccase of cross breeding or other polyploidy, and there you have it. But while cherries and plum trees may or may formerly have been able to cross breed, this is, if true, because they were the same kind of tree back in Eden. And as I read on in the article of Russell Grigg, I see he came to the same conclusion, or that Jonathan Sarfati did:

Also in the Latin (Vulgate) translation of the Bible, the Hebrew word for ‘kind’ (mîn) in Genesis 1:11, 12, 21, 24 & 25 was translated variously with the two Latin words species and genus (plural genera). The meanings of the Linnaean species and the biblical species diverged over time, which led to ambiguity. Jonathan Sarfati comments: “The Bible talks of fixity of kinds, which in the Latin translation became fixity of species, but then an unwarranted switch took place to fixity of Linnaean species.”


However, I am a little nonplussed at the beginning of same paragraph:

The idea of ‘fixity of species’ came from ancient writers like the Greek philosopher Aristotle.


I have elsewhere seen Aristotle blamed for being an Evolutionist, so I wonder at the sentence ... I'd like to know where it comes from!

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St Joan the wife of Chusa*
24.V.2017

* Item beatae Joannae, uxoris Chusae, procuratoris Herodis, quam Lucas Evangelista commemorat.

lundi 22 mai 2017

What Sunday Letter was the Year of Creation? IV


What was the Sunday Letter for the Year of Creation?

Part I · Part II · Part III · Part IV · Part V

When we take Gregorian calendar backwards, we get another problem.

You see, it only exists since 1583 and we have not yet here on the blog figured out how its periodicity is.

It differs from that of Julian calendar, insofar as we are certain that some leap years are 8 years apart. Note this was not the case around 1600, since 1600 was a Gregorian leap year.

So, years previous to 1583 are here reconstructed, as they would have been.

1672 CB
0140
1532 CB
0028
1504 CB

Remember that 1904 also was CB?

2016 CB
0084
1932 CB
0028
1904 CB

And 1904 is of course exactly 400 years after 1504. This means that the periodicity is 400 years, precisely as for leap days in general. As we will see, there will be quirks when approaching beginning of time, but this hardly changes the general picture - or does it?

Byz. Lit.  Sync.  St. Jer.  Ussher
 
1672 CB  1672 CB  1672 CB  1672 CB
5508  5500  5199  4004
7180 CB  7172 CB  6871 CB  5676 CB
5600   -  6800  5600
1580 CB  7180 CB  0071 CB  0076 CB
1200  7172 CB  0056  0056
0380 CB  0008  0015 CB  0020 CB
0056   -  0014 D  0019 D
0324 CB  0092 CB  0013 E  0018 E
0040  0008  0012 F  0017 F
0284 CB  0084 CB  0011 AG  0016 AG
0056  0056  0010 B  0015 B
0228 CB  0028 CB  0009 C  0014 C
0040 !  "0000" CB  0008 D  0013 D
0188 CB   0007 FE  0012 FE
0056   0006 G  0011 G
0132 CB   0005 A  0010 A
0040 !   0004 B  0009 B
0092 CB   0003 DC  0008 DC
0084   0002 E  0007 E
0008 CB   0001 F  0006 F
0007 D    0005 G
0006 E    0004 BA
0005 F    0003 C
0004 AG    0002 D
0003 B    0001 E
0002 C
0001 D


But what if we just missed out on omitting a secular leap day?

Here are remakes of lower parts of tables:

(5508)  (5199)  (4004)
 
0008 B !  0007 E !  0004 A !
0007 C  0006 F  0003 B
0006 D  0005 G  0002 C
0005 E  0004 A  0001 D
0004 GF  0003 CB
0003 A  0002 D
0002 B  0001 E
0001 C


Should one omit more leap years than Gregorian postulates? Check this:

31556952 seconds mean Gregorian year
31556925 seconds mean tropical year
52-25=27

3200 is how many years it takes for the 27 seconds to add up to a day which would need to be retracted.

In over 7000 years, this has happened twice. Would the above missed centurial day count in these?

(5508)  (5199)  (4004)
 
0008 B !  0007 E !  0008 C !
0007 C  0006 F  0007 D
0006 D  0005 G  0006 E
0005 E  0004 A  0005 F
0004 F !  0003 B !  0004 G !
0003 G  0002 C  0003 A
0002 A  0001 D  0002 B
0001 B    0001 C


Or would it not count, so we need one omitted leap day more? Giving both for Syncellus, below:

(5508)  (5500)  (5199)  (4004)
 
0092 CB  1672 CB  0015 B !  0016 G !
0056  5500  0014 C  0015 A
0036 CB  7172 CB  0013 D  0014 B
0035 D  6800  0012 E  0013 C
0034 E  0372 CB  0011 F !  0012 D !
0033 F  0140  0010 G  0011 E
0032 G !  0232 CB  0009 A  0010 F
0031 A  0028  0008 B  0009 G
0030 B  0208 CB  0007 C !  0008 A !
0029 C  0012  0006 D  0007 B
0028 D !  0196 CB  0005 E  0006 C
0027 E  0084  0004 F  0005 D
0026 F  0112 CB  0003 AG  0004 FE
0025 G  0040  0002 B  0003 G
0024 A !  0072 CB  0001 C  0002 A
0023 B  0071 D    0001 B
0022 C  0070 E
0021 D  0069 F
0020 FE  0068 G !
0019 G  0067 A
0018 A  0066 B
0017 B  0065 C
0016 DC  0064 D !
0015 E  0056
0014 F  0008 ED
0013 G  0007 F
0012 BA  0006 G
0011 C  0005 A
0010 D  0004 CB
0009 E  0003 D
0008 GF  0002 E
0007 A  0001 F
0006 B   -
0005 C  0008 D !
0004 ED  0007 E
0003 F  0006 F
0002 G  0005 G
0001 A  0004 BA
 0003 C
 0002 D
 0001 E


We are seeing how St. Jerome's chronology is in some trouble, none of above versions will give a B for year 1, not even a CB (a CB for "0000" or "years zero" or "year before God created" would of course give an A for the year in which God created).

Can we get around this somehow? See next part.

Hans Georg Lundahl
ut supra
uel, sicut in bloggo legitur
ut infra.

What Sunday Letter was the Year of Creation? III


What was the Sunday Letter for the Year of Creation?

Part I · Part II · Part III · Part IV · Part V

So, we got back to 1672 for both Gregorian year with CB and Julian year with GF.

Now, going back to Creation is a bit delicate, in the sense that Gregorian years were introduced less than a C before 1672, and Julian years only half a century before AD.

And, I suspect I will in the following be missing a few things about transitional matters about leap years when going from counting Ab Urbe Condita to two versions of Anno Mundi (Byzantine and St Jerome) and from then on to AD.

But, let's pretend, for arguments sake, for a first approximation, that these transitions had not happened, that the series of leap years go straight back to AD 4 without any break in Julian and with the one break 1583 (later in some countries) for Gregorian.

What would the consequence be?

Another thing I will ignore is of course - for a better and systematic reason - that "365 days + 1 leap years every four years (except 3 secular years out of 4)" was never in any kind of calendar most of the time we are talking about.

Whether Church Fathers knew it or not, and I think some did, Adam would not literally have been calling the day of his Creation "March 25" or celebrating it literally on "March 25" of all subsequent years.

He certainly had a calendar, he certainly knew sufficient from God (or if making it after Eden, from the talents God gave him and observation) to have one. We know for a fact, since Flood story is an eye-witness account (unlike the Sumerian versions, where poet admits from the first lines he is writing about things happened very long ago), and since in that eye-witness account, years and months and dates on months are named.

But it is far more likely it was a Hebrew than a Roman one.

And St Jerome would certainly have known that when calculating Roman dates for this or that event (like Friday March 25 for Crucifixion, for Good Friday, for Our Salvation) he was dealing with sources who, themselves, had ultimately been using a Hebrew calendar. I am saying this lest anyone accuse me of contradicting all the Church Fathers by saying this without having explicitly found it in any one of them, yet.

That said, March 25 is an earthly convention, but in the best astronomically correct calendars, it corresponds to a rather precise alignment between Sun and Zodiac, different from other alignments like March 23 or March 27 (there is some leeway to neighbouring days, insofar as the cycle of alignments - known as years - and the cycle of day and night - known as successive calendar days have a glitch : a certain exact alignment may be a few hours into March 25 one year and a few hours back in March 24 next or previous year, depending on how this glitch works out).

And we will now proceed to studying the proleptic Julian and Gregorian calendars, from that point of view.

In the time of the Church Fathers, the Julian was thought to be astronomically exact, meaning, they would have used that one proleptically. This does not amount to an unanimous statement from all Church Fathers that Julian calendar is in fact astronomically perfect and cannot be improved, as Gregorian was an imrovement of it.

Now, shall we begin our studies of proleptic calendars, using the Anno Mundi dates as per two Byzantine, one Roman, one Anglican (but used by Catholics) and one Jewish chronology?

We begin with Julian Calendar, as this one will give us cycle repeat every 28 years.

For Jewish 5777, we will for Julian have to check what date was the first Sunday which in Julian calendar fell on this year. Remember that any letter will be the same for the 1, 8, 15 of each month? This means Sundays in our January were 1, 8, 15. But our January 14 = Russian January 1. So, Julian Dominical letter for this year is B.

Byz Lit Sync.  St. Jer.  Ussh.  Jew.
 
1672 GF  1672 GF  1672 GF  1672 GF  5777 B
5508  5500  5199  4004  5600
7180 GF  7172 GF  6871 GF  5676 GF  0177 B
5600   -  5600  5600  0140
1580 GF  7180 GF  1271 GF  0076 GF  0037 B
1400  7172 GF  0560  0056  0036 DC
0180 GF  0008  0711 GF  0020 GF  0028
0140   -  0560  0019 A  0008 DC
0040 GF  0009 C  0151 GF  0018 B  0007 E
0028  0008  0140  0017 C  0006 F
0012 GF  0001 C  0011 GF  0016 ED  0005 G
0011 A   0010 A  0015 F  0004 BA
0010 B   0009 B  0014 G  0003 C
0009 C   0008 C  0013 A  0002 D
0008 ED   0007 ED  0012 CB  0001 E
0007 F   0006 F  0011 D  
0006 G   0005 G  0010 E  
0005 A   0004 A  0009 F  
0004 CB   0003 CB  0008 AG  
0003 D   0002 D  0007 B  
0002 E   0001 E  0006 C  
0001 F    0005 D  
   0004 FE  
   0003 G  
   0002 A  
   0001 B !


In the Julian Calendar, thus, the Palm goes to the Ussher chronology.

We'll be back later (yes, tables take time) with Gregorian and a few other considerations. For now, man created March 25 on a Friday implies March 25 fell on a Friday, which as previously seen implies Dominical Letter B. In Julian calendar projected back to Creation, it is Ussher who takes the palm of accuracy.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St. Rita of Cascia
22.V.2017

vendredi 19 mai 2017

What Sunday Letter was Year of Creation? II


What was the Sunday Letter for the Year of Creation?

Part I · Part II · Part III · Part IV · Part V

We will be starting from the present year, and we will be counting backwards, so, here is how we go when counting backwards in time:

2017 a
2016 c, b
2015 d
2014 e
2013 f
2012 a, g
2011 b
2010 c
2009 d
2008 f, e
2007 g
2006 a
2005 b
2004 d, c
2003 e
2002 f
2001 g
2000 b, a
1999 c
1998 d
1997 e
1996 g, f
1995 a
1994 b
1993 c
1992 e, d
1991 f
1990 g
1989 a
1988 c, b


2016
1988
0100 (20-19, but move over)
0030 (11-8, but move over 1, remain 20)
0028 (16-8)

So, the periodicity is once every 28 years - and in the Julian calendar that is always so.

In the Gregorian calendar, there are times, three per four centuries, when leap years are 8 years apart, which of course changes things.

28
56 (2*28)
84 (adding both, 3*28)

1988 c, b
0084
1904 c, b

Here we will be getting our first centurial year back which was not divisible by 400:

1904 c, b
1903 d
1902 e
1901 f
1900 g !
1899 a
1898 b
1897 c
1896 e, d
1895 f
1894 g
1893 a
1892 c, b


1904
1892
0100 (19-18, but move over)
0010 (10-9)
0012 (4-2)

1892 c, b
0084
1808 c, b
0012
1800 (18-0, but move over one)
1790 (10-9)
1796 (8-2) c, b
0084
1712 c, b

We are in trouble, we cannot use c, b for 1700 by 1712-12, since 1700 was not in Gregorian a leap year.

1712 c, b
1711 d
1710 e
1709 f
1708 a, g
1707 b
1706 c
1705 d
1704 f, e
1703 g
1702 a
1701 b
1700 c !
1699 d
1698 e
1697 f
1696 a, g
1695 b
1694 c
1693 d
1692 f, e
1691 g
1690 a
1689 b
1688 d, c
1687 e
1686 f
1685 g
1684 b, a
1683 c
1682 d
1681 e
1680 g, f
1679 a
1678 b
1677 c
1676 e, d
1675 f
1674 g
1673 a
1672 c, b


And let's check wikipedia on the matter:

1672 (MDCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (dominical letter CB [ - yes!]) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday (dominical letter GF) of the Julian calendar.


Of course, week days were the same in countries with Gregorian and Julian calendars, what was different was the dates. In countries with Julian calendar, January 1 had been 10 days later, as in 16th C. since the year in which Gregorian calendar was introduced (1600 was a leap year and did not change the glitch between the calendars, 10 days after as before).

Does 10 days glitch match up with CB corresponding to GF?

1672, first Sunday of Gregorian year was January 3. So, January 3 (C) being ten days later in Julian style, it fell on January 13. An N+5, with January 3 being an N+2. 5-2=3.

C+3=CDEF

Seems to me, Julian year should have had Sunday letter or Dominical letters FE rather than GF, in 1672? Is that just me? If so, what did I do wrong?

Hans Georg Lundahl
ut supra
uel in bloggo
ut infra

PS, found the problem! If Gregorian January 3 was a Sunday, obviously Julian January 3 would be on Gregorian January 13, but 10 days is not a week, so that was not a Sunday. Here we get the table:

Jan 1672
Greg.  Jul.
 
A 1 F
B 2 Sa
C 3 Su
D 4 M
E 5 Tu
F 6 W
G 7 Th
A 8 F
B 9 Sa
C 10 Su
D 11 M A 1
E 12 Tu B 2
F 13 W C 3
G 14 Th D 4
A 15 F E 5
B 16 Sa F 6
C 17 Su G 7


So, yes, it was GF after all./HGL

PPS Julian GF, that is./HGL

What Sunday Letter was the Year of Creation? I


What was the Sunday Letter for the Year of Creation?

Part I · Part II · Part III · Part IV · Part V

In Gregorian and Julian Calendars, every date on a whole year or on the two parts of a leap year gets a weekday connected to other dates that year / part of leap year.

This is possible because lunar months are eliminated, all months have standardised day numbers. When lunar months really are lunar, you don't know the weekdays of the dates until the month arrives, but this is not our case. February some years gets a day extra, we know which years, and it is the only month which varies in length. So, it os possible.

It is also interesting because the Sunday letter shifts from year to year, and at leap day in leap years. In a year with 364 days, the Sunday letter would be the same every year. 350 = 7*50, 14 = 7*2, 350+14=364.

But Julian and Gregorian calendars are about a year with 365.25 or 365.2425 days, not 364. So, some years have 365 days and the last day, December 31, has same Sunday letter and Week day as the first, January 1 had had. But this December 31 is also followed by January 1 of next year, which therefore has on each Sunday letter (starting with A on January 1) one weekday later than the year before. In leap years, when the similar shift occors on leap day too, December 31 is however 366th day, and will have its A already one weekday later than January 1, so the ensuing January 1 will be two weekdays later than the one at beginning of the leap year.

One can also put it this way : which Sunday letter will Sunday be on?

A - January 1, like years beginning on Sunday?
B - January 2, like years beginning on Saturday?
C - January 3, like years beginning on Friday?
D - January 4, like years beginning on Thursday?
E - January 5, like years beginning on Wednesday?
F - January 6, like years beginning on Tuesday?
G - January 7, like years beginning on Monday?

Obviously, if Sunday letters went forward each year, January 1 would next year be falling on previous weekday, it is not the case, it would be the case with a year of 363 days.

This means, Sunday letters are instead going backwards.

And since this year is Sunday letter A, previous leap year was Sunday letters C and B. 2015 was Sunday letter D.

And after I tell you how I checked, I will tell you why this is relevant for Creationism.

It is already some way into the year. You can't recall what weekday New Year's Day was on. How do you check the Sunday letter?

Well, you pick up the latest newspaper, ideally daily, you can lay hands on. I am not doing it, but if I were, I guess from computer I would be getting May 19 as a Friday. The above means, every year (or second part of leap year) when May 19 is a Friday should be Sunday letter A. Is this true?

Well, first of all, we look at Sunday letters within a month, how they relate. Not specifically "A", but since the months start on different Sunday letters (some repeating), "n" and then n+1 - n+6.

N  1 8 15 22 29
N+1  2 9 16 23 30
N+2  3 10 17 24 31
N+3  4 11 18 25
N+4  5 12 19 26
N+5  6 13 20 27
N+6  7 14 21 28


In the case of February 29th on a leap year, it is actually same Sunday letter as February 28th a normal year. But all other 11 29ths of the month have same Sunday letter as 1st of same month.

Now, how do we know which Sunday letter the first of a month is? January is A, obviously, but then?

January 29 - A
January 30 - B
January 31 - C
February 1 - D

So February is D, shall we go on? No, it would be tedious. The result is already known, you can check it for yourself with some patience. But the already known fact has already been set in memory verse. In Swedish it is:

Alla De Dagar Gud Böd Eder Gå, Christeligen Fram Att Dem Fullborda


If I can goof around with English a bit, as with "go" instead of "walk", and "dem" instead of both "the" and "them", and especially radically replacing "ye" with "ee" here we have a translation:

All Dem Days God Bade Ee Go Christianly Forth As Dem Fulfilling.


Is it true that December 1 is Sunday letter F? Well, December 31 is supposed to be A, it is supposed to be N+2, and FGA means this is F.

May is 5th month, take 5 words:

All Dem Days God Bade ...


So, May 1 is Sunday letter B, and May 19 like May 5 is B+4, BCDEF, it's an F today. But B+6 is not "H" - a Sunday letter not existing, but A. So, the Sunday letter for 2017 is A.

Now you will want to know how this relates to Creationism?

Well, we know the weekdays of the days of Creation : Sunday to Friday were the six days of new creatures being made, Sabbath was the seventh day, on which God was only blessing the types already made.

What if we also knew the year and the date?

Well, Patristics both East and West of 1054 do claim man was created on March 25, so Friday March 25 in Creation year corresponds perfectly to Good Friday March 25 on which Christ died for us.

What does March 25 as a Friday imply? 25 of a month is N+3. March 1 = D. D+3 = DEFG. Friday G. And that means Sunday is B, since G+2 = GAB = B.

And this brings us to the years calculated in diverse chronologies!

Here we have been discussing the carbonic implications of Syncellus (differing 8 years from normal Byzantine liturgic chronology, Christ born 5500 AM instead of 5508 AM), of St Jerome even more often (Christ born 5199 AM) and I was testing carbonc implications of Ussher (Christ born 4004 AM) and of Jewish calendar (in which 5777 overlaps with 2017).

So, how about testing the Sunday letter implications of them?

I'll be back.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St Celestine V*
19.V.2017

* Natalis sancti Petri de Morono Confessoris, qui, ex Anachoreta Summus Pontifex creatus, dictus est Caelestinus Quintus. Sed Pontificatu se postmodum abdicavit, et in solitudine religiosam vitam agens, virtutibus et miraculis clarus, migravit ad Dominum.

jeudi 18 mai 2017

Answering Koukl & Keaton Halley and Gary Bates


Two paragraphs from CMI:

Avoiding the obvious

According to Koukl, “There is nothing in the language of those passages that requires something like a global or universal Flood,” and he has offered arguments in defense of a local Flood on his radio program.2 For example, Koukl noted that in Genesis 8:9 Noah’s dove returned because “the waters were still on the face of the whole earth” (emphasis added), but earlier in verse 5 the text says that the waters had already receded enough so that “the tops of the mountains were seen”. So, Koukl reasoned, if “the whole earth” was still under water after some dry land had already been exposed, then “the whole earth” cannot refer to the globe.

However, this argument is flawed. If the planet was surrounded by water with some peaks poking up here and there, one would still be accurate in saying that the globe as a whole was covered. It wouldn’t mean every square inch of land, but rather that the land, broadly speaking, was submerged.3 The words are perfectly consistent with a global Flood, which the wider context demands.


Faltering on the Flood
by Keaton Halley and Gary Bates
Published: 18 May 2017 (GMT+10)
http://creation.com/local-flood


I disagree on the solution. As to "with some peaks poking up here and there", one could pretend tribes of mankind had survived at Andes and Himalayah's independently of Noah's Ark.

And I think this is wrong, even if an Inca Flood myth speaks of a sibling couples using Andes as Ark.

I think this is not what “the tops of the mountains were seen” really means.

In clear weather, you can see mountain tops down in the water some depth (say at least 1 to 2 yeards, depending on clearness of waters).

If you object that a raven (sent out before the dove) must have been surviving on one peak poking up somewhere, it could have survived on a mat of vegetation which included some carcasses as well. I take it that in verse 5, as yet no piece of land was both visible above waves sometimes and not at other times submerged by water. Or raven can have survived in a tree, hacking down on carcasses floating around it, while a dove needs to pick its food on the ground.

And whether raven survived or not is also moot on whether ravens were a pure bird, with seven individuals or couples, or an impure one, with only one couple. Only in the latter case need the raven have survived. But I think that is the case.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St Venantius the Martyr
18.V.2017

samedi 13 mai 2017

I am Not Generally Against Armstrong


Dave Armstrong, Creationist*, says Creationists must not be divisive · Answering Armstrong on Vast Majority of Experts Argument and Flood Geology · I am Not Generally Against Armstrong

Let no one think I am generally against Dave Armstrong on all issues, just because I took issue with his non-inerrantism (de facto, if not intended) on Age of Earth.

I think he shows he has some fair Fundamentalist credentials in this one:

Catholics & the Historicity of Jonah the Prophet
February 16, 2017 by Dave Armstrong
http://www.patheos.com/blogs/davearmstrong/2017/02/catholics-historicity-jonah-prophet.html


And I have nothing against his clearly Catholic credentials in his debate with Geisler, here:

“Armstrong vs. Geisler”

#1: Purgatory (Mt 12:32)
#2: Purgatory (Lk 23:43)
#3: Merit & Penitential Suffering
#4: Prayer for the Dead
#5: Prayer to Creatures
#6: Sinless Mary
#7: Mary’s Assumption

Meaning, if he were just only Young Earth Creationist as well and Geocentric, he would be a Catholic after my heart.

It is just that, to me, as I suppose to His Holiness Pope Michael, a Fundamentalist credential is just as Catholic as a Catholics vs Protestants credential when it comes to somes faith, whether in heart or in statements.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St. Robert Bellarmine
13.V.2017

vendredi 12 mai 2017

Tas Walker and Myself on C14 : Glacial Maximum and End


Tas Walker and Myself on C14 : Glacial Maximum and End · Interim III, Flood to Abraham with Syncellus · Continuing Interim III to Joseph in Egypt

You know the remark how Schubert said about Beethoven, it is like hearing and feeling a giant breathing behind your neck, well, that is how I feel at times about Tasman Bruce Walker.

Today he gave a preliminary for his view of how uniformitarian dates recalibrate to Biblical ones, and I feel somewhat challenged.

Here is my response, linking to his post and giving first his results before mine in the table which follows:

A preliminary age calibration for the post-glacial-maximum period
by Tas Walker
http://creation.com/age-calibration-for-post-glacial-maximum-period


While he is concerned with all uniformitarian dates, I am specifically concerned with carbon dates - and the other ones only insofar as they can be presumed to coincide with these, since my hobby horse is "carbon 14 levels have been rising"./HGL

Table:

TW/HGL ?
Secular / Carbon?
Point Secular / Carbon BP Biblical Date BP Calibration factor
 
TW
Secular Dates
Present time 0 0 1
End of Ice Age 7000 3800 0.5429
Ice Age Maximum 22000 4000 0.1818
 
HGL
Carbon Dates
Present time 0 0 1
500 BC 2500 2500 1
"End of Ice Age"* 7000 4293 BP - 4562 BP 0.6133 - 0.6517
"End of Ice Age"** 7000 (3648 BP - 3675 BP) (0.5211 - 0.525)
"Ice Age Maximum"* 22000 4885 BP - 5234 BP 0.222 - 0.2379
"Ice Age Maximum"** 22000 (4068 BP - 4354 BP) (0.1849 - 0.1979)
 
Update:
Flood CMI*** 20 - 50 000 4400 - 4500 BP 0.088 - 0.225
Flood me/St. Jer. 37 000 4974 BP 0.1344
Flood me/Syncel. 37 000 5275 BP 0.1426


Notes:

* Note, I have never myself tried to figure out Biblical dates corresponding to End of Ice Age or Ice Age Maximum per se. That is Tas Walker's terminology and that of the Evolutionists.

I have however tried curves in order to correspond such and such years via presumable pmc level rise - with several tables differing among them. This means I can give my own view of Biblical timeline for those years, I will even include views not my own, such as Ussher timeline or Jewish chronology timeline. The latter however not for 500 BC, where I suppose they have too short a time of the Second Temple, as I suppose most other Christians agree with.

I have for this post gone through my tables and taken extremes for both own and parenthetic values, and if seeing an older or more recent value only than previous, replacing it for the orevious extreme.

** The Ussher / Jewish chronologies which I do not subscribe to are given here in parentheses.

*** Not specifically Tas Walker, but someone else commenting on where Flood fossils date in C14 - Oard?